The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), native of Pakistan, is a gentle, hardy, long-lived animal that
is in many ways the perfect reptile pet.
Unlike their distant cousins the tokay gecko, leopards seldom even attempt
Leopard geckos are also very easy to maintain in that:
- They reach only a foot in overall length, and
don't outgrow a ten or fifteen gallon aquarium
- They pick a single corner of the enclosure to
use as a litter area, facilitating cleanup.
- They are nocturnal and don't require the use of
expensive UV light bulbs.
- They don't require high heat like bearded dragons.
- They eat mealworms and crickets, and don't require
a vegetarian diet.
- Virtually all leopards are now captive hatched
in this country, eliminating shipping stress and parasites found in imported iguanas and other lizards.
Overall the leopard gecko reaches a length of about 10 inches, and gets its name from the
leopard like spots which cover the bodies of adult animals. Baby leopard geckos are born with dark transverse bands, which
lighten as they grow into the spotted adults. Their general background color is yellow and lavender, although a number of
new color phases have arisen through captive breeding. Some of the existing phases are animals with hi-yellow, white or lavender
background color, striped, jungle and other pattern anomalies, and leucistic (actually hypomelanistic) and albino genetic
mutations. Leopard geckos are members of the sub-family Eublepharinae, or the eye-lidded geckos. Many geckos lack eyelids,
but the leopard geckos' are movable, which allow them to blink and close their eyes while sleeping. Toe pads, which are useful
in climbing vertical walls and glass aquaria are not present in the leopard gecko. There are tiny claws on the end of the
Like many lizards, the leopard gecko has a tail which breaks off readily when grabbed by a predator. This permits
the gecko to get away if attacked, but leaves a valuable food resource behind; the tail is used as a fat storage reservoir
for lean periods. One of the most notable traits about leopard geckos, which has led to their great popularity, is their unusually
gentle disposition. Leopards in captivity appear to recognize their keepers, and are at times content to sit on a shoulder
for hours. It takes a significant amount of provoking before a leopard gecko will bite.
geckos are found in southern Asia, in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq.
geckos inhabit arid regions, particularly rocky deserts and sparse grasslands. They avoid sandy deserts. They are strictly
nocturnal, keeping out of the heat of the day, emerging at night from holes and crevices to hunt for food. In the wild they
mainly feed on a variety of insects, including scorpions, but will also eat other lizards. Animal often live in loose colonies.
Leopard geckos are seldom found off of the ground.
Housing in Captivity:
The cage setup for leopard geckos
can be as simple or elaborate, as you like. A single animal can be maintained in a ten gallon aquarium with a paper substrate.
If you prefer, they can be maintained on reptile carpet, gravel or orchid bark. The use of sand as a substrate is not recommended
for leopard geckos. They will occasionally ingest too much sand in their craving for calcium or accidentally during hunting
activities, causing a sand impaction that could become quite serious. Basically, the cage substrate should be too large for
them to swallow, and dust-free.
Leopard geckos will choose one comer of the tank to relieve themselves, and use it
solely. This facilitates cleanup. You can place a piece of paper towel in the appropriate corner, and spot-clean quickly and
easily. Leopard geckos require a cage temperature about 85F. A heat source on one end, which will provide a thermal gradient
in the cage is recommended. This is best accomplished with heat from above; hot rocks do not provide the necessary cage heat,
and have been known to cause severe burns. Red incandescent bulbs placed above one end of the cage not only provide the needed
heat, but also provide light to view the animals in the evening when they are active. It is important that the nighttime temperature
not drop too low (about 80 degrees F at the warm end) or the animals will not eat. As the geckos are nocturnal, expensive
UV lights are not necessary.
In addition to hiding places at both the warm and cool ends of the cage, a plastic shoe
box or small freezer container, with a hole cut in the lid, is provided for the geckos. Inside the box, there is a damp peat
moss/vermiculite mixture. This hide box not only provides a place for females to lay eggs, but also provides the humidity
required for the geckos to shed properly. In a ten gallon tank, there is usually room for just one hide box. This should be
a moist box and the box should be placed in the middle of the tank. An alternative is to spray a warm corner of the enclosure
3-4 times per week. If a moist area for shedding is not provided, the shed skin may remain on the toes and constrict, eventually
causing the loss of the toe.
Groups of juvenile or female leopard geckos can be maintained in the same cage. Young
animals, however, must be housed with others of their own size, or the smaller animals in the cage will be dominated by the
larger ones, and will not do well.
Food and Feeding:
Leopard geckos can be fed mealworms or crickets,
with an occasional meal of wax worms or a pink mouse when they are older. When maintaining a large colony of geckos, mealworms
are significantly less work than crickets. There appears to be no significant difference in health or growth rate between
geckos fed crickets or meal worms. Wax worms are a good supplement or treat, but are too fatty and not nutritious enough for
a regular diet. Start with a feeding schedule of once daily or every other day. Babies seem to prefer to chase their meals,
adults will eat mealworms out of a shallow dish. Feed early evening if possible .The geckos soon learn when it is dinner time,
and will come out of their hide boxes to eat. Some appear to enjoy being hand-fed. Feed as many mealworms/crickets as they
will eat in a single feeding. If the animal eats what is provided, put in a couple more food items to see if they are eaten
as well, to help gauge the correct amount of food. Be sure to remove any crickets that are not eaten in a feeding, as they
will annoy and unduly stress the geckos. Baby geckos that are getting enough food will shed every two weeks or so. Adults
should be hefty, but not obese with a nice, fat tail. Leopard geckos require a shallow dish for water and a calcium source.
With many other species of gecko, crickets and mealworms need to be dusted with calcium; the leopard geckos will lick the
calcium powder right out of a shallow dish if provided.
Leopard geckos adapt well to captivity
and have been known to live 20-30 years. They are not highly susceptible to health problems, and seem to enjoy being handled.
Like many lizards, their tails will break off as a defense mechanism if handled roughly. The tail will grow back fairly quickly,
although it will not be as elegant as the original.
It is very difficult to sex leopard geckos
before they are about three months old. At this time, the sexual characteristics of the male can be seen, especially if a
magnifier is used. The male is identified by the presence of hemipenes, seen as bulges at the base of the tail.The male also
has femoral (preanal) pores above the tail.The female has a row of modified cells where the pores would normally be, but there
are no visible pores (see figures)
For breeding, we keep a ratio of about 8-10 females to one male per enclosure, which is a custom-designed open tub
with 2 x 4 foot floor dimensions. Other breeders
have had equal success with less females per male, but we do not recommend a setup with less than three females, as the males
become aggressive during breeding and may dominate the females if too few are present. Two males should not be placed together
in the same enclosure, or they will fight. If you wish to keep smaller numbers of animals, remove the male after a couple
weeks and reintroduce him to the harem at monthly intervals. Female can retain sperm, so they do not need the constant presence
of a male in order to produce several clutches of eggs.
In the fall, the males are removed from the enclosure and all
the animals are slightly cooled in the evening, allowing the nighttime temperature to fall into the mid 70's. The males are
then introduced during this cooling period. Leopard geckos lay two eggs at a time, doing this numerous times over several
months. The females will then bury the eggs in the vermiculite/peat mixture, and mound the substrate over the eggs. Usually,
you can tell at a glance if you have eggs; all the substrate will be pushed to one end of the laying box. The eggs are removed
daily and placed in an incubator in the same peat/vermiculite mixture. The sex of leopard geckos is determined by incubation
temperature. At 90 degrees F, virtually all the babies are male; near 80, most of the babies will be female.