Origin, Habitat And Habits Found in Southeastern USA, Cuba,
Jamaica, and other Caribbean islands. Only the green anole is native to the U.S.; all others are released or escaped pets,
many of which have survived and bred in the U.S.; the other six species are native to the Caribbean islands. The vast majority
of green anoles sold in the pet trade are wild caught in the Southeastern U.S. There are over 36 species of non-native anoles
breeding in the wilds in Florida (out of an estimated total of 250 anole species in the world), and there has been considerable
interbreeding so markings may be considerably altered from the true wild types.
in bushes, trees (not above 15'), in and on rock walls, woods, around houses.
terrestrial, these diurnal lizards inhabit low bushes and the ground underneath. Often found sunning on exposed walls and
Diet Wild diet
includes grubs, crickets, cockroaches, spiders, moths, any arthropod which will fit in their mouths. In captivity, avoid 'sowbugs'
(aka potato bugs, pill bugs) and beetles. Even though anoles will go for bigger prey, the size fed to them should be no bigger
than 1/2 the size of the anoles head.
Captive Housing Anoles are best kept singly or in groups. Generally, males should be kept singly or in the company of two
or more females. Minimum tank size for a group of two adult anoles would
be a tall 10 gallon tank. Three or four (one male and up to three females) anoles may be kept in a 20 gallon tall aquarium
(48" x 13" x 20"). The more lizards there are, the more hiding places and basking areas needed, so tanks must get correspondingly
Minimum Requirements: Despite their relatively inexpensive price tag, anoles are not "cheap" lizards. The basic captive environment requires:,1 Vitalite (or other UVB-producing fluorescent) - 12-14 hours a day ,1 basking light,1 nocturnal
heat light, as needed to maintain night time temperatures,1 undertank
heating pad (human heating pads are appropriate),2 thermometers (cool
end and warm end; ideally, a third should be placed in the basking),Sterile
peat moss potting soil over 1 inch of pea gravel, OR 1-2 inches of potting soil covered with bark mulch,Several 2 inch potted plants - helps maintain humidity and provide cover and shade from the UV
and basking lights (Sansevierias are good, as are bromiliads, philodendrons, ivys, orchids and vines and groundcovers),Logs or branches for basking (essential for arboreal lizards!)
Not appropriate for anoles: hot rocks,heat tapes heated caves,sand or gravel substrates
Temperatures Basking area: 85-90 F available in daytime only
thermal gradient: 75-80 F days, 65-75 F night
Humidity and Water The ambient enclosure humidity should be maintained around 60-70%...humid but not wet rainforest conditions. Spray
plants with purified water (tap water causes hard water spots on plants and glass) a couple times a day, or set up a dripper
or mister system. In the wild, anoles lap off leaves. In captivity,
you cannot assume that they will figure out what a water bowl is, so you will need to spray the leaves for them. Some anoles
do learn to drink from bowls: you can aid this learning process by setting up a dripper bottle to drip water into a shallow
bowl. It is the sight and sound of dripping, splashing water which attracts their attention.
Diet The anole's captive diet should be as close to their wild diet
as possible. Most people feed small crickets and mealworms (the latter of which which most anoles will not take). As with
many reptiles, anoles may be scared of prey that is too large for them to handle. Wild-caught bugs may be accepted eagerly. Make sure the insects are collected from pesticide free area and areas not
heavily impregnated with auto exhaust particulates. Stay away from bugs you are not certain of, and ones known to be toxic,
such as fireflies. Feed anoles daily, letting them have as much as they
will eat. If crickets are left uneaten in the enclosure, be sure to provide them with proper cricket food and moisture - otherwise,
they will eat whatever is handy: your anoles!
Temperament Some anoles may become comfortable with being gently
handled. On the whole, however, handling is very stressful to them, and stress will cause them to become ill. Initially, however,
all anoles will try to run from you when you go to pick them up and may bite...and they have quite strong bites for being
such small, delicate creatures! Biting, as much as it may hurt you, may be more dangerous for them if you jerk your hand away
- this can break their jaws or cause teeth to be ripped out. So, handle them as little as possible, and don't jerk your hand
if you get bit - put them back in their enclosure so that they can feel something under their feet - that will get them to
release you. They can drop their tails if grabbed there (this is called
autotomy), and their fragile toes can be broken or injured if removed ungently from branches, bark or your clothing.
Health Issues Since they are primarily wild caught lizards, highly stressed from the capture and the deprivations
and often inhumane conditions of the pet trade, they are generally dehydrated, moderately to severely emaciated, and riddled
with parasites - just like most reptiles sold in this country every year. A dehydrated reptile will not eat, or will not eat
very much, as digestion requires considerable quantities of fluids. If
there are any significant folds of skin, or the eyes are sunken, the lizard is dehydrated. If 24 hours of higher than normal
humidity does not resolve it, the anole should be taken to a vet to be assessed for other methods of fluid administration.
Persistent black spots behind the eyes on the head may be an indication
that your anole is seriously ill. Anoles, when heated, lighted, fed
and housed properly, are fairly hardy lizards. Depending upon the age they are when they are caught/bought, the older ones
may not settle in as well as the younger ones. Remember: to them, you look like a giant predator. They are not as intelligent
as many of the much larger lizards so you must be patient and understand that you may end up with some beautiful lizards in
a lush, beautiful environment (lots of plants, bark slabs for hiding places, etc.) rather than a lizard who will tolerate
a lot of handling and social interaction.
Signs of Stress When a green anole turns brown, it is a sign of
severe stress. Stressed anoles may turn green at night when their lights are out and they are asleep, but will turn brown
again once they wake up and start the new day. The stress may be environmental
(enclosure is too hot or too cold, or there is a cat staring at them most of the time you aren't around, etc.), or it may
be psychosocial, something that will happen if you are keeping two or more anoles together in one enclosure. Two lizards require more room than one; three lizards more than two.
Sexing Adults reach ~7 inches snout-tail
length (stl). Wild specimens of 10 to 12 inches reported; 9 inches considered big in captivity. This may be due to the fact
that they are not generally cared for properly in captivity (diet, heat, lighting) and so do not grow as well and die earlier
than in the wild...(about 4 years in captivity). Males are larger than
females and have a dewlap (throat fan) which they use to display to females and rivals. Some males have a dorsal crest (beginning
just behind the head) which is raised as part of the threat display (typically with the dewlap extended). Males have enlarged
post-anal pores (found on the tail below the vent). Females, and juveniles
of both sexes, may have a white stripe down the back. Females of some species have dewlaps - if they do, they are smaller
than those of males, and displayed less frequently.
Reproduction Captive anoles will breed, or
attempt to, readily if conditions are right. Breeding occurs most often in the spring and summer months after a period of
brumation. For several weeks, they must be kept at lower temperatures (65-70 F during day; down to 60 F at night) and with
a shorter photoperiod (8 hours instead of the usual 14). During this time they may be fed only if they take food - they should
not be force fed, and weak or thin anoles should not be brumated. The anoles must be healthy and be receiving the necessary
UVB and vitamins, especially calcium, accomplished by gut-loading their prey. Signs of breeding include males displaying their dewlaps and posturing to females. Males may start bobbing their heads
rapidly while turning toward female. If female runs away she's not ready; if she stays or, while running, allows herself to
be caught, and bows her head, the male will grab her neck with his mouth and they will mate. Actually mating generally occurs
in afternoon or evening hours. Breeding season lasts 4-5 months. Within
two weeks of a successful mating, the female will begin to show a swollen abdomen. She will search out a warm moist place
in the substrate, push it aside with her head, and deposit an egg (rarely, two may be laid), covering the egg with the substrate.
This will be repeated every two weeks, for a total of about 10 eggs per breeding season. Eggs can be removed from the vivarium
but many successful hatchings have been achieved leaving by the eggs in the vivarium. To prevent injury to the egg, either by the female digging to bury another one or by you as you service the terrarium,
the eggs should be removed and set carefully in a mixture of damp sterile vermiculite (1:1 mix, or one part water to 12-14
parts vermiculite) or sand, in a covered container, and incubated at 82-85 F, checked weekly to assure the substrate remains
damp and that none of the eggs has molded. Provide gentle, not direct heat, to keep the container at 84-86 F (29-30 C); eggs
should hatch in 35-40 days. Hatchlings are 1.25" svl, about 2-2.5" stl,
and are considered mature at 4-5" stl. They eat voraciously, and must be supplied with lots of pinheads that have been properly
gut-loaded and shaken in a calcium and multivitamin supplement before being fed out. Fruit fly larva and wingless fruit flies
are also good foods for hatchlings.
Behavior/Communication Anoles produce no
sounds. They can drop their tails if grabbed or otherwise feel threatened. A new tail will generally grow in but regenerated
tails are rarely the same as the original in color, texture, or size. Anoles
are generally not aggressive, but males may quarrel if housed together. This applies to inter-species confrontations as well.
Some anole species will produce aggressive displays to their reflections in mirrors. Knight anoles should not be housed with
other anoles smaller than themselves - they will as cheerfully feed on green anoles as they will spiders and crickets. Behavior during breeding season may be significantly different than outside of breeding
season. Males will display more (posturing, dewlap-flaring) and become more aggressive towards other males. Dominant males
may develop black postorbital spots on their head. A sign of their status, most subordinate males will leave these dominant
males alone. In a too-small enclosure, however, having two males both attempting to attain and maintain dominant status may
end up tragically for one of them. Breeding-minded males will also annoy
females more. Not all females will be receptive to all males. Despite
extensive research in mate selection, there are still a lot of unknowns. We do know that if a male pursues a female who is
not interested, it could cause significant stress in the female, stress to the point of illness. If you are housing more than
one anole in an enclosure, you must increase the size of the enclosure and provide discreet areas so that the female can get
away from, and out of sight of, the male. Aggression may be overt and
forceful, such as butting, biting, and chasing, but it can be more subtle, too. If you have two or more green anoles and one
is always brown, observe them carefully. Notice where the brown one goes, and where it does not go. You will probably see
that it is not eating, basking, or otherwise behaving in the same way as the others. More careful observation should enable
you to identify which of the other anoles is causing this behavior. A dominant anole (male or female) uses posture and physical
position within the environment to maintain their dominant status. While some subordinate lizards are fine with this, some
are not, or may for some reason become the focus of the dominant lizard. If you have such a stressed anole, you will need
to separate it from the others, providing a completely separate enclosure for it and possibly one other anole with whom you
know it is compatible.